The device which is used for the protection of the equipment at the substations against travelling waves, such type of device is called lightning arrester or surge diverter. In other words, lightning arrester diverts the abnormals high voltage to the ground without affecting the continuity of supply. It is connected between the line and earth, i.e., in parallel with the equipment to be protected at the substation.
The following are the damages that are caused by the travelling wave on the substation equipment.
- The high peak or crest voltage of the surge may cause flash-over in the internal winding thereby spoil the winding insulation.
- The steep wave fronts of the surges may cause external flashover between the terminal of the transformer.
- The highest peak voltage of the surge may cause external flashover, between the terminal of the electrical equipment which may result in damage to the insulator.